The array of visual and literary primary documents on display in this exhibit convey a diverse array of creators who portrayed a rapidly changing natural and built environmental region. From painted landscapes to technical government documents, British émigrés to Upper Canada in the Toronto region observed and disseminated ideas about their landscape to international art and literary markets. In turn, these images fueled accelerated expansion into Toronto’s forested hinterland, from both the city (a la the Topographical Plan) and from within ‘the bush’ itself (a la Newly Cleared Land). Moreover, these images illustrate the complicated and often paradoxical Imperial environmental gaze over landscapes: at once in sublime amazement, and next urging forward the clearing of land for the next phase of urbanization.

Works Cited

Armstrong, F. H. A City in the Making: Progress, People & Perils in Victorian Toronto. Dundurn Press, 1988.

Campey, Lucille H. Seeking a Better Future: the English Pioneers of Ontario and Quebec. Dundurn Press, 2012.

Careless, J. M. S. Frontier and Metropolis: Regions, Cities, and Identities in Canada before 1914. University of Toronto Press, 1991.

Clarke, John. Land, Power, and Economics on the Frontier of Upper Canada. McGill-Queen's University Press, 2014.

Davis, Donald F. “The ‘Metropolitan Thesis’ and the Writing of Canadian Urban History.” Urban History Review, vol. 14, no. 2, 1985, p. 95., doi:10.7202/1017987ar.

Gerson, Carole. Canadian Women in Print 1750-1918. Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press, 2010.

Harper, J. Russell. “A Study of Art at the Upper Canada Provincial Exhibitions Ontario Painters 1846-1867.” Bulletin 1 (I:1) May 1963, National Gallery of Canada, 2001,

Moodie, Susanna. Roughing It in the Bush, or Forest Life in Canada. Maclear & Co., 1871.

Thompson, E. The Pioneer Woman: a Canadian Character Type. McGill-Queen's University Press, 2014.

Traill, Catherine Parr (née Strickland). Canada and the Oregon. The Backwoods of Canada: Being Letters from the Wife of an Emigrant Officer, Illustrative of the Domestic Economy of British America. To Which Is Appended an Account of the Country of Oregon. M.A. Nattali, 1846.